Hysteroscopy is a minimally invasive, safe endoscopic method using a small camera for diagnostic or surgical purposes. In gynaecology, it has been used as a supplement to ultrasound examination to visualize the interior of the cervix and the uterine cavity. In addition to its diagnostic value, hysteroscopy can be used in surgical treatment in the case of suspected mucosal changes, uterine defects, adhesions or myomas. It is used as one of the methods of diagnosing infertility.

Hysteroscopy can be performed without anaesthesia using only muscle relaxants. The doctor inserts a hysteroscope (and microtools in the case of surgical hysteroscopy) through the genital tract. Any abnormalities that can be safely removed are excised by the doctor. Operative hysteroscopy is performed under general or, less frequently, local anaesthesia.

Hysteroscopy is performed after the end of menstrual bleeding in the first half of the cycle. Before the procedure, the doctor may order an infectious screening package (cervical culture, Chlamydia, anti-HIV antibodies, jaundice, venereal diseases) and cytology. The doctor may also order blood count and coagulation profile. In addition to the preliminary diagnosis, outpatient diagnostic hysteroscopy does not require any additional preparation.

Hysteroscopy owes its popularity to the low risk associated with the procedure. The risk of pelvic inflammatory disease is less than 1% and antibiotic therapy is additionally used as a preventive measure.
Hysteroscopy may be complicated by uterine wall perforation or damage to the adjacent organs, but such complications are extremely rare.

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