Immune disorders can also lead to infertility. Immune causes of infertility include the presence of anti-sperm antibodies, HLA incompatibility, abnormal immunophenotype, i.e. a disturbed ratios of T cells, B cells and NKs.

Indications for immunophenotyping primarily include failures in conceiving, including unsuccessful attempts at assisted reproduction, pregnancy loss, and other immune disorders.
It is worth paying attention to autoimmune disorders associated with infertility, such as antiphospholipid antibody syndrome and systemic sclerosis, which pose a threat to pregnancy.

KIR (killer immunoglobulin-like receptor) genotyping and HLA-C genotyping are performed in the case of failed embryo implantation or recurrent pregnancy loss. KIR genes are responsible for the presence of receptors found on the surface of natural killer cells. KIR genes are highly differentiated. Characterising the types of KIR genes in patients may explain the cause of problems with embryo implantation or the cause of recurrent pregnancy loss.

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